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APPENDIX I. SANSKRIT PROSODY

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APPENDIX III. Geographical names

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APPENDIX II. Writers

Giving the dates &c. of important Sanskrit writers.
आर्यभदृ¦ A well-known astronomer. Born A. D. 476.
उद्भट¦ One of the earliest writers on Alankâra. He
was the chief Pandit or Sabhâpati of king Ja-
yâpîda of Kâshmir (779-813 A. D.).
कय्यट¦ Author of the भाष्यप्रदीप, being a commen-
tary on Patanjali’s महाभाष्य। He is considered by
Dr. Buhler to be not older than the 13th century.
कल्हण¦ The author of the well-known राजतरंगिणी ‘the
chronicle of kings’. He was a contemporay of Jaya-
simha of Kâshmir who reigned from 1129-1150
A. D.
कालिदास¦ The celebrated author of the अभिज्ञानशकुंतल,
विक्रमोर्वशीय, मालविकाग्निमित्र, रघुवंश, कुमारसंभव, मेघदूत, ऋतु-
संहार; also of the poems नलोदय and of some other
minor works. The earliest known authentic refer-
ence to Kâlidâsa is in an inscription dated 556
Sake or 634 A. D., in which he and Bhâravi
are spoken of as being renowned poets. The verse
is as follows:–
येनायोजि न वेश्म
स्थिरमर्थविधौ विवेकिना जिनवेश्म ।
स विजयतां रविकीर्तिः
कविताश्रितकालिदासभारविकीर्तिः ॥
Bâṇa’s reference to him in the beginning of his
Harsha-charita also shows that he must have flou-
rished before the time of Bâṇa, i. e. before the
first half of the seventh century. But how long
before the seventh century the poet flourished
is not yet known. According to Mallinâtha’s ex-
planation on Me. 14 निचुल and दिङ्नाग were con-
temporaries of Kâlidâsa. If Mallinatha’s sug-
gestion be correct-and it is very doubtful if it be
really so-then our poet must have lived in the
middle of the sixth century which is the date
usually assigned to दिङ्नाग।
There is one point which, if definitely settled,
would give the poet’s precise date. It is the
mention by Kâlidâsa of his patron Vikrama.
Who this Vikrama is it has not yet been definite-
ly settled. Popular tradition identifies him with
the founder of the Samvat Era which is said to
have commenced 56 B. C. If this view be cor-
rect, Kâlidâsa must be considered as belonging
to the first century before Christ. But some
scholars have recently come to the conclusion
that what is called the era of Vikramâditya
56. B C. was a date arrived at by taking the date
of the great battle of Korūr in which Vikrama
finally defeated the Mlechch has, i. e. 544 A. D,
and then by throwing back the beginning of the
new era 600 years before that date, i. e. 56 B.
C. If this conclusion be accepted as correct-and
scholars do not seem to have yet agreed on the
point-Kâlidâsa must have flourished in the sixth
century A. D. The question is still an open one.
क्षेमेंद्र¦ A well-known poet of Kâshmir, author of
समयमातृका and several other works. He flourished
during the second and the third quarter of the
11th century.
जगद्धर¦ N. of a celebrated commentator, who has
written commentaries on the Mâlatî-Mâdava and
Veṇi4-Samhâra. He lived after the 14th century.
जगन्नाथपंडित¦ N. of a celebrated modern author.
His most celebrated work is the रसगंगाधर a trea-
tise on Rhetoric or Poetics; his other works
are भामिनीविलास, the five laharis (गंगा, पयूष, सुधा,
अमृत, करुणा), and a few minor works. He is
supposed to have flourished during the time of
the Emperor Shah Jahan of Delhi. He must
have also seen the latter end of Jehangir’s reign,
and the temporary accession of Dârâ to the
throne in 1658. His date, –at least, his active
career-lay, therefore, between 1620 and 1660 A. D.
जयदेव¦ Author of that charming lyric poem the
Gîtagovinda. He was an inhabitant of the village
Kinduwilva in the Vîrabhūmi district of Bengal. He
is said to have lived in the time of a king called
Lakshmaṇasena who is identified by Dr. Buhler
with the Vaidya king of Bengal whose inscription
is dated Vikrama Samvat 1173 or 1116 A. D. The
poet must have, therefore, flourished in the 12th
century.
दंडिन्¦ Author of the Dasakumâracharita and Kâvyâ-
darsa. He flourished in the latter half of the sixth
century, and was a contemporary of Bâṇa, accord-
ing to Mâdhavâchàrya.
पतंजलि¦ The celebrated author of the Mahâbhâshyat.
He is said to have lived about 150 B. C.
नारायण (भट्टनारायण)¦ Author of the Veṇî-Samhâra.
He must have flourished before the 9th century as
his work is frequently quoted by the poet Ananda-
vardhana in his work called ध्यन्यालोक। This poet
flourished under the reign of Avantivarman 855-
884 A. D. (Râj. T. 5. 34)
बाण¦ The well-known author of the Harshacharita,
Kâdambarî and Chaṇḍikâsataka. Pârvatîpariṇaya
and Ratnâvalî are also ascribed to him. His date
is indisputably fixed by that of his patron Harsha-
vardhana of Kânyakubja who was reigning during
the whole of Hiouen Thsang’s travels in India
which lasted from 629 to 645 A. D. Bâṇa must,
therefore, have lived in the latter half of the sixth
or the first half of the seventh century. The date
of Bâṇa is useful in ascertaining the dates-at least
the termini ad quem –of several writers mentioned
by him in his introduction to the Harsha Charita.
बिल्हण¦ Author of the Mahâkàvya Vikramânkadevacha-
rita and of Chaurapanchásikâ. He flourished in
the latter half of the 11th century.
भट्टि¦ A son of Srî Svâmin, who lived in Vallabhi
during the reign of king Sridharasena or of Nar-
endra, the son of Srîdhara, who is supposed by
Lassen to have reigned from 530 to 545 A. D.
भर्तृहरि¦ Author of the three Satakas and of the Vâkya-
padîya. Mr. Telang gives it as his opinion that
he must have flourished about the close of the
first and the beginning of the second century of
the Christian era. Tradition makes him brother of
king Vikrama, and if this Vikrama be accepted
as the same who defeated the Mlechchhas in 544
A. D., we must suppose Bhartṛihari to have flourish-
ed in the latter half of the sixth century.
भवभूति¦ The well-known author of the Mahâvīracharita,
Mâlatî Mâdhava, and Uttararâmacharita. He was
a native of Vidarba and lived at the court of king
Yasovarman of Kânyakubja, who was subdued by
Lalitâditya of Kâshmir (693-729 A. D.) Bhava-
bhūti flcurished therefore at the end of the 7th
century, and this date is consistent with Bâṇa’s
omission of his name. All anecdotes about the
contemporaneity of Kâlidâsa and Bhavabhūti must
be rejected as absolute myths.
भारवि¦ Author of the Kirátàrjunîya; mentioned along
with Kâlidâsa in an inscription dated 634. See
कालिदास।
भास¦ Mentioned by Bâṇa and Kâlidâsa as their pre-
decessor. Flourished before the 7th century.
मयूर¦ Father-in-law of Bâṇa and author of the Sūrya-
Sataka composed by him to be freed from leprosy.
A contemporary of Bâṇa q. v.
मम्मट¦ N. of the author of the Kàvyaprakása. He
must have flourished before 1294 A. D. in
which year a commentary on that work by name
Jayantî was written by one Jayanta.
मुरारि¦ Author of the Anargha-râghava mentioned by
the poet Ratnâkara (who flourished in the 9th
century) in Haravijaya 38. 67. He must, therefore
be placed before the 9th century.
रत्नाकर¦ Author of the Mahâkâvya called Haravijaya
and patronized by Avantivarman (855-884 A. D.).
राजशेखर¦ Author of the Bâla-Râmáyaṇa, Bâla-Bhârata,
and Viddhasâlabhanjikâ. He lived after Bhavabhūti
and before the end of the tenth century, that is,
he flourished between the end of the 7th and
the middle of the 10th century.
वराहमिहिर¦ A celebrated astronomer, author of the
Bṛihat-Samhitâ. He died in 587 A. D.
विक्रम¦ See कालिदास।
विशाखदत्त¦ Author of the Mudráràkshasa. The 7th
or 8th century is regarded by Mr. Telang as
the probable date of the production of the drama.
शंकर¦ The celebrated teacher of the Vedánta philoso-
phy and author of the शारीरकभाष्य and of a large
number of original works, especially on Vedânta.
He is said to have been born in 788 A. D. and
to have died in 820 at the early age of 32. But
some scholars (Mr. Telang, Dr. Bhandarkar &c.)
have tried to show that Sankara’s date must
be the 6th or 7th century at the latest. See In-
troduction to Mudrâràkshasa.
सुबंधु¦ The author of Vâsavadattâ mentioned by Bâṇa,
and so not later than the 7th century. He men-
tions a work of Dharma-kîrti by name बौद्धसंगति
which is supposed to belong to the sixth century.
श्रीहर्ष¦ The reputed author of the Naishadhacharita
and of 7 or 8 other works. He is generally
placed in the latter half of the 12th century.
(Wilson says that Srîharsha succeeded his father
Kalasa in 1113, and that the Ratnâvalî, a play
ascribed to the king, must have been written by
him between 1113 and 1125 the close of his reign.
But the Ratnâvalî must be regarded as a work of
an earlier date as it is largely quoted in the
Dasarūpa, a work of the last part of the 10th cen-
tury).
हर्ष¦ The patron of Bâṇa, see बाण। The Ratnâvalî is
supposed to have been written by Bâṇa and pub-
lished under his patron’s name.