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AP90 Apte Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary (User notes)

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Containing Appendices on Sanskrit Prosody and
important Literary & Geographical names
in the ancient history of India.
(All Rights Reserved.)


This Dictionary has been undertaken to supply a want long felt by the student of a complete
and at the same time cheap Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Very little need, I think, be said with regard
to the necessity of bringing out a work like this, when the study of Sanskrit has received such a strong
impetus during the last twenty-five years. There have been four or five Sanskrit-English Dictionaries pub-
lished till now; but very few of them fulfil the two essential conditions of the popularity and usefulness of
such works: –satisfying all the requirements of students and at the same time being within their easy reach.
The Dictionaries of Professors Wilson and Monier Williams are very useful and valuable works, but their
prices-particularly of the latter-are prohibitively high, and they do not also meet many of the most ordinary
wants of Sanskrit readers. A student, while reading Sanskrit at School or College, generally expects that the
Dictionary which he uses will give appropriate equivalents for such words and compound expressions as
may have peculiar meanings or shades of meaning in particular passages. He desires to know not only that
a particular word has so many senses, but that it has this or that sense in a particular passage of a
book, so that he may determine any particular meaning of a word in a certain passage by seeing and
comparing how it is used elsewhere by the same writer or by other writers in different works. He also
wants accurate and, as far as possible, full explanations of the more important technical terms occur-
ring at least in his usual course reading, as well as any other information likely to be of use to him.
Professor Monier Williams has, in his invaluable Dictionary, tried to exhaust the meanings of words as far as
he could, and has also given much useful information on some points. But it would not, I think, be detracting
from the merits of the great work to say that it fails to give some of the most common senses of words occur-
ring in such well-known and oft-read books as the Uttararâmacharita, Mudrârâkshasa, Veṇîsamhàra,
Sisupálavadha or Kâdambarî, Moreover it gives neither quotations nor references, nor much of the in-
formation likely to be useful to the student during his School or College career. In making these re-
marks I must not, in the slightest degree, be understood to make any reflections on that Dictionary. Indeed, I
have myself derived no small help from that work, as will be acknowledged further on. My only object
in pointing out its defects has been to show why I thought it necessary to undertake the compila-
tion of a new Dictionary, when some already existed in the field, and I hope the reader will be able
to find that this Dictionary is an improvement on its predecessors in some respects at least.
Having thus explained the necessity of undertaking and publishing this Dictionary, I shall say a
few words with regard to its plan and scope. The extent of Sanskrit literature is so vast that not even the
life-long labours of a single individual, howsoever talented or persevering, will be able to do full justice to it.
It has two distinct branches, the Vedic and post-Vedic, each of which will require an independent encyclopædia
for itself. Not even the gigantic Vâchaspatya of the late Professor Târânâtha Tarkavâchaspati, nor the
equally gigantic German Wörterbuch of Drs. Roth and Bothlingk, can be said to be altogether complete and
comprehensive. Much less can a small work like mine-complied during the leisure hours
of a teacher’s life-aspire to be called complete in any sense of the word. However, I have
tried to make it as comprehensive and practically useful to the student of Sanskrit as
my humble powers enabled me to do, though how far I have succeeded in my object the reader alone can
best decide. It includes all words occurring in the general post-Vedic literature, such as Epics like
the Râmâyaṇa and Mahâbhârata, the several Puràṇas, the Smṛiti literature, particularly the law-books of
Manu and Yâjñavalkya, the several darsanas or systems of philosophy such as Nyâya, Vaiseshika, Mîmâmsâ,
Vedânta, &c. Grammar, Rhetoric, Poetry in all its branches, Tantra and dramatic literature, Mathematics,
Medicine, Astrenemy, Music, and such other technical or scientific branches of learning. It inserts most
of the leading names of trees and plants with scientific or vernacular equivalents wherever noteworthy.
It also gives most of the principal Vedic words or senses of words; for though Vedic Literature would
require a dictionary by itself, still I did not think it desirable to omit altogether at least such words as fre-
quently occur, especially as I intended to make this work as complete and comprehensive as I could. For the
same reason, obscure or unimportant words or senses of words have been inserted, though they may not be
generally met with in classical literature as studied by the University student.
The chief feature of this Dictionary is that it has aimed at being practical. With this view I have
added quotations and references to the peculiar and noteworthy senses of words, especially such as occur in
works read by the student at School or College. In some cases the quotations might appear to some to
be superfluous, but to a student, especially a beginner, they are very useful, as they supply him with
apt illustrations of the senses of words, and enable him to provide himself with a large stock of
choice, idiomatic expressions which are so abundant in the language. Another noticeable feature of the
Dictionary is that it gives full explanations of the more important technical terms, particularly in Nyâya,
Alankâra, Vedânta, Grammar and Dramaturgy, with quotations in Sanskrit wherever necessary; e. g.
see the words 
 &c. In the case of Alankâras I have chiefly drawn upon
the Kàvyaprakâsa, though I have occasionally consulted the Rasagangâdhara, Chandrâloka and Kuvala-
yânanda. In the explanation of dramatic terms I have usually followed the Sâhityadarpaṇa and its
translation into English, and have sometimes referred to the Dasarūpa. Similarly, striking phrases, some
choice expressions and idioms or peculiar combinations of words, have been given under every word where
necessary or possible; e. g. see the words गम्, सेतु, मयूर, हस्त, धा, कृ, दा, बंध्, &c. Mythological allusions
in the case of all important personages have been briefly but clearly explained, so as to give the reader
most of the facts connected with them; e. g. see अग्नि, अगस्त्य, इंद्र, कार्तिकेय, प्रह्राद, सावित्री &c. Etymology
has generally been given in the case of every important word, except where it was purely fanciful; e. g. see
अजीवनि, अतिथि, अपत्य, पुत्र, जाया, हृषीकेश &c. In doing this I have followed the system of native gramma-
rians who resolve every word into its ‘prakriti’ and ‘pratyaya’, and the terminations given according to
Pâṇini’s nomenclature will be explained further on. I have thought it necessary to do so at the sugges-
tion of several friends, and have derived considerable help from the great Váchaspatya which I have
usually followed, except where the etymology given therein appeared to me to be purely arbitrary or fan-
ciful. Philological comparisons have been given only where useful and noteworthy. The work also gives in-
formation about words which, it is believed, will be very useful, especially to the University student; e. g.
see the words अप्सरस्, असुर, वेद, मंडल, मानस, हंस &c. Some of the most common Nyâyas or Maxims have
been collected under the word न्याय for easy reference; e. g. see काकतालीयन्याय, दंडापूपन्याय, स्थालीपुलाकन्याय
&c. To add to the usefulness of the Dictionary I have added at the end three Appendices. The first is on
Sanskrit Prosody which attempts to give in a clear and intelligible form all the common metres with Defini-
tions, Schemes in Gaṇas, and Examples. In the preparation of this Appendix I have chiefly
drawn upon the two popular works on Prosody, the Vṛittaratnâkara and Chhando-Manjari,
but some common metres omitted in those works have been added from the illustrations
found in the works of Mâgha, Bháravi, Daṇḍin, Bhatti, Su4draka &c. Colebrooke’s Essay on Sanskrit Metres
has also given me occasional help. The second Appendix gives the dates, writings &c. of some of the im-
portant Sanskrit writers such as Kálidâsa, Bhavabhūtî, Bâṇa. Here I have selected only those names about
which something definite-something more than mere guesses and surmises-is known, and I have derived
some hints from the Introduction to Vallabhadeva’s Subhâshitávali edited by Dr. Peterson and Pandit
Durgâ Prasâda, and from Prof. Max Müller’s ‘India: what it can teach us,’ for which my thanks are due
to the authors of both the works. The third Appendix gives the most important names in the
ancient Geography of India with identifications on the modern map wherever ascertained, and
in this part of the work I have to cordially acknowledge the help I have derived from Cun-
ningham’s Ancient Geography, but particularly from Mr. Borooah’s Essay prefixed to the third
volume of his English-Sanskrit Dictionary. I had at first intended to add two alphabctical indexes to
the principal events and personages occurring in the Râmâyaṇa and Mahâbhârata, but I have
had to abandon the project, as the publication of the Dictionary has already been delayed on account of
various causes over which I had no control. In short, I have endeavoured to make the PRACTICAL SAN-
SKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY as complete, comprehensive, and encyclopedic as was possible within the limits
of a single compact volume by condensing a very large amount of matter by means of suitable typographi-
cal and other arrangements, and I hope it will be found to be a practically useful and reliable guide in
the study of the Sanskrit language.
There is one point which will not fail to strike a careful reader of this Dictionary, which is that there is
not the same fulness of treatment in the later portion as in the first 300 or 400 pages. After the vowels
had been printed off, I found that they covered no less than 364 pages by themselves, and if the remain-
ing letters of the alphabet had been treated with the same fulness, the volume would have increased to
about 2000 pages, and the publication of the work itself would have been delayed by at least one year more.
It is obvious that neither time, nor the very cheap price at which the work was offered to subscribers,
would have enabled me to carry on the work of compilation on the same scale; and I was, therefore, obliged
to endeavour to curtail the matter by occasionally substituting references for quotations without at the same
time marring the usefulness of the work, and by abridging explanations of words and the information given
about them, while in some cases I have had to keep back matter originally intended for the volume. I hope,
however, that this has not to any great extent affected the practical usefulness of the Dictionary, and
I trust that if time and circumstances permit, I shall be in a position to make the second edition much more
useful, complete, and comprehensive than the first.
The plan and arrangement of the work will be best understood from the ‘Directions’ which follow.
Verbs formed by prefixing prepositions to roots are arranged in the alphabetical order of the prepositions so
affixed; e.g. प्रस्था or संस्था must be looked for not under स्था, but in its own alphabetical order, and at the head
of its own group of derivatives. This system has been followed in this Dictionary with a view to save re-
petition of equivalents under the derivatives from a root. But if, on trial, it be found to be practically in-
convenient, it may be abandoned in the second edition. As in the English-Sanskrit Dictionary, I have
here throughout used the anusvâra instead of the nasals, (e. g. anga or santâpa is written not as अङ्ग, सन्ताप,
but as अंग, संताप), which practice, whatever may be said with regard to its correctness, is very convenient for
purposes of printing. The several contrivances used to effect saving in space will be understood by the
reader after very short practice.
It now remains for me to do the grateful duty of acknowledging the help I have derived from differ-
ent sources. And in doing so I must give the first place to the great Sanskrit encyclopædia, the Vâchas-
patya of Professor Tárânâtha Tarkavâchaspati. I have constantly kept it by my side and have freely avail-
ed myself of the information contained in it-of course with large curtailments-though I have had to supple-
ment it myself wherever it was found to be defective or insufficient. Several words and senses of words not given
in the existing Sanskrit-English lexicons, as also some quotations, particularly from Udbhaṭa and Puráṇas,
have been borrowed from the same work. The Sanskrit-English Dictionary of Professor Monier Williams is
the next work to which I have been greatly indebted. It has been a constant source of help to me, and I
have frequently adopted his renderings of words, compound expressions &c., where I found them better
than those I myself had to suggest. And though there is a good deal in this Dictionary that is not to be
found in that work, and though the plan and scope of the two are essentially different, yet I must
gratefully acknowledge the great assistance I have often derived from the learned Professor’s invaluable Dic-
tionary. The last work to which also my grateful acknowledgments are due is the German Wörterbuch of
Drs. Roth and Bothlingk. The chief distinguishing feature of that great work is that it abounds with
quotations and references dealing with almost every branch of Sanskrit literature, but a careful reader will
easily see that the works belonging to Vedic literature, such as the four Vedas, Upanishads,
Brâhmaṇas, Araṇyakas &c., have been comparatively more copiously drawn upon by the
authors than works belonging to the post-Vedic literature. A glance at the contents of this
Dictionary will show that I have drawn upon works seldom or not at all referred to in the
Wörterbuch; such as the Mahâvîracharita, Mâlatî-Mâdhava, Uttararâmacharita, Kádambarî, Sisupâla-
vadha, Kirâtârjunîya, Mudrârâkshasa, Veṇîsamhâra, Ratnâvalî, Kàvyaprakása, Sánkartabhâshya, Bháminîvilása,
Vikramânkadevacharita, Gangálaharî &c. Indeed, the great majority of quotations and references are
from my own collection made during the last seven or eight years; and I have even been obliged to keep back
a large number of them for want of space. But I must frankly acknowledge that I have freely availed
myself of the quotations and references in that Dictionary, where my own collection was defective, particularly
in the case of Vedic and Paurâṇic works. I have also occasionally consulted the Dictionaries of H. H.
Wilson and Benfey, the former supplying some happy renderings of technical or obscure
words. To these authors, as well as to the authors and editors of several other works, which are
too many to be here mentioned, from which I have derived occasional help in one form or another, my
most grateful thanks are due.
In conclusion I may be permitted to express the hope that the PRACTICAL SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTION-
ARY-which has attempted to give in 1200 closely printed pages of this size matter at least equal in point of
quantity to that given by Prof. Monier Williams in his Dictionary, but in point of quality more reliable,
varied, and practically useful, in my humble opinion-will serve the purpose I have had in view in
compiling it; namely, to render to the student of Sanskrit nearly the same service that Webster’s or Ogilvie’s
Dictionary does to the student of English. I have tried to make it easily accessible to the public by issuing
a Popular Edition priced at 7 Rupees-a price too low, I believe, for so much matter; while the Library Edi-
tion which, containing the same matter, is printed on superior paper and in better style, and will also
have superior binding, will best answer the purposes of the well-to-do persons who can afford to
spend 10 or 11 Rupees for such object. In a work of this kind I know there must be several de-
fects and also errors both of omission and commission, and if such persons as will do me the honour of using
this Dictionary will be so good as to point out to me places which require corrections, additions or improve-
ments, I shall be very happy to give the suggestions my best consideration in the second edition. But if
the Dictionary, even in its present form, be found to be a useful publication, I shall consider my labours
more than amply repaid, and shall feel quite refreshed to devote my humble self again, if need be, to
the service of the Sanskrit-reading public; for, says the poet,
क्लेशः फलेन हि पुनर्नवतां विधत्ते।
28th December 1890. V. S. APTE.


1. Words and their derivatives are arranged in the following order: first the radical or primitive
word in large black type in all its different parts of speech; and then the several derivatives in smaller type.
In some cases these derivatives are given in their own alphabetical order for the sake of clearness.
2. The different parts of speech of a word are indicated by large black dashes, after which the nomi-
native singular of the part of speech is usually given, or the letters m., f., n. or ind. are put after the dash, the
leading word being given only once. Where a word is used as an adjective and also as a substantive, the
senses of the adjective are invariably given first; e. g. वीर, साधु, सत्। The same is done in the case of com-
pounds, but within brackets.
3. Where two words, though identical in form, differ entirely in meaning, they are generally repeated
as separate words; e. g. हा, हि। In a few cases they have been grouped together.
4. Words which are used as adverbs, but derived by case-inflections from a noun or adjective, are
given under the noun or adjective, e. g. उत्तरेण under उत्तर। In some cases they are given within
brackets before the compounds, if any.
5. The several meanings of a word, where they can be sufficiently distinguished from one another, are
given separately and marked by black Arabic figures. Mere shades of meaning are not considered as separate
senses, but in such cases several synonyms are given under the same meaning, from which the reader will
have to make his choice. Where the shades of meaning are sufficiently broad, they are numbered as separate
6. The meanings of words are arranged in the order of their importance and frequency of use. It has
not, of course, been possible to do so in every case, ut the system has been generally followed.
7. (a) Compounds are grouped under the first word in the compounds, in the alphabetical order of
their second members, the black dash before them denoting that first word; e, g. –होत्र under अग्नि means 
 under उत्तर means उत्तराधिकारिन्।
N. B. In giving compounds, the changes, which the final letters undergo, e. g. the dropping, assimila-
tion of letters &c. are assumed; e. g. –अपर under पूर्व stands for पूर्वापर, –गतिः under अधस्, for अधोगतिः &c. In
some cases the compound words, where not easily intelligible, are given in full within brackets; see 
(b) Where a compound itself is used as the first member of other compounds, these letter are given
immediately after, their second member being preceded by ºwhich represents the first compound; e. g. 
 &c. given under द्वि stand not for द्वींद्र or द्विराज, but for द्विजेंद्र or द्विजराज।
(c) All aluk compounds (e. g. आत्मनेपद, कुशेशय, परस्मैपद, मनसिज, दास्याः पुत्रः, हृदिस्पृश् &c.) are
given separately in their proper places, but under the radical word.
8. All words formed by Kṛit or Taddhita affixes are given separately; thus 
 &c. will be found not as compounds under कूल, भय &c. but as separate words.
9. (a). In the case of substantives the nominative singular, wherever it may at once denote the
gender, is given throughout, the visarga, unless followed by f., indicating masculine gender, and the
anusvâra neuter gender. Where the nominative singular is not indicative of the gender, it is specified as
m. f. or n. as the case may be. All substantives ending in consonants have their genders specified as m. f.
or n.
(b) The feminine forms of nouns are usually given as separate leading words, but in some cases,
especially in the first five or six hundred pages, they are given under the leading word after the masculine
gender. But where the fem. base enters into compounds, it is invariably given separately; e. g. अजा।
10. In the case of adjectives the simple base only is given. The feminine of the majority of adjec-
tives in अ ends in आ, and adjectives ending in इ or उ have generally the same base for all genders. In all
such cases the simple base is given, the feminine being formed according to similar substantive bases. All
irregular feminines are, however, denoted within brackets. Adjectives ending in त्, न्, or स्, form their
feminines regularly in ती, नी, or सी; where irregular, they are denoted within brackets.
11. (a). In the case of verbs, the Arabic figure before P., A. and U. denotes the conjugation
to which the root belongs; P. denoting Parasmaipada, A. Atmanepada, and U. Ubhayapada (P. and A.).
Den. stands for Denominative, and here the 3rd pers. sing. present tense is given throughout.
(b). Under each root the 3rd person singular present tense and of the Perfect, Aorist, two Futures
and Infinitive in the case of important roots, and the past passive participle wherever noteworthy, are given
throughout. The forms of the Passive, Causal and Desiderative, wherever noteworthy, are given after them,
or after the senses of the primitive base, where there is any peculiarity in their senses.
(c). Verbs formed by prefixing prepositions to roots are given separately in their own alphabetical
order, except in cases where there are no derivatives from such verbs.
(d). Roots sometimes change their form or pada (voice) or both, when used in particular senses,
or when preceded by particular prepositions. Such changes are denoted within brackets.
(e). When a root belongs to different conjugations with different meanings, Roman figures are used
to mark this difference, (cf. अस्, गुप्, हा &c.), the root being repeated only once.
12. (a). All possible derivatives from a word are not always given when they may be easily sup-
plied, more especially in the case of potential passive participles (formed by तव्य, अनीय and य), present
participles, and abstract nouns from adjectives (formed by adding ता, त्व or य). Where there is any pecu-
liarity either in the formation or meaning of these derivatives, they are given. But in many cases the stu-
dent will have to supply the forms according to the general rules given in Grammar.
(b). Similarly all the equivalents given under the radical word are not always repeated under the deri-
vatives; they may, if necessary, be ascertained by a reference to the radical word.
13. Mythological allusions are explained in small type in the body of the work between rectangular
brackets []. Here long vowels like â, î, ū, and letters of the lingual class, as also ऋ and श are, for the
convenience of the press, denoted by corresponding italic letters; e. g. Pandava and Kripi stand for
पांडव and कृपी।
14. Metres and information about literary and geographical names are given in the Appendices at
the end.


N. B. Ter. stands for ‘termination’, and Tad. for ‘Taddhita’.
a Kṛit ter. (f.); as in जिगमिषा।
अङ्(अ) a Kṛit ter. (f.) before which no guṇa or Vṛiddhi takes place; as in भिदा, छिदा, स्पर्धा।
अच्(अ) a Kṛit ter. (m.); as in पचः; or a Tad. one; as in अर्शसः।
अञ्(अ) a Tad. ter. showing ‘descendant or offspring’ &c.; as in औत्सः, वैदः।
अण्(अ) a Tad. ter. used in the same sense; as in जानकी, पार्वती, शैव; also Kṛit.; as in कुंभकारः।
अति(अत्) a Tad. ter. (f.) showing number or measure; as in दशत्, पंचत्।
अथुच्(अथु) a Kṛit ter. (m.); as in वमथुः, वेपथुः श्वयथुः।
अनि(अनि) a Kṛit ter. (f.); as in अजीवनिः।
अनीयर्(अनीय) a Kṛit ter. used to form potential passive participles; as in करणीय, हननीय।
अप्(अ) a Kṛit ter. (m.); as in प्रसवः, गरः, भवः, करः; or Tad.; as in अंतर्लोमः।
असिच्(अस्) a Tad. ter.; as in अप्रजस्, सुमेधस्।
असुन्(अस्) an Uṇ. ter. (n.); as in सरस्, तपस्, चेतस्।
अस्ताति(अस्तात्) a Tad. ter.; as in अधस्तात्, पुरस्तात्।
आच्(आ) a Tad. ter. (adv.); as in दक्षिणा, उत्तरा।
आटच्(आट) a Tad. ter.; as in वाचाट।
आनुक्(आन्) a feminine termination; as in इंद्राणी, भवानी।
आलच्(आल) a Tad. ter.; as in वाचाल।
आलुच्(आलु) a Kṛit ter. showing ‘disposition or tendency’; as in श्रद्धालु, स्पृहयालु; or a Tad. ter. showing ‘possession’; as in हृदयालु; or ‘inability to bear’; as in शीतालु, उष्णालु।
इक्(इ) a Kṛit ter.; as in पचिः, भेदिः।
इञ्(इ) a Tad. ter. showing ‘descendants’ &c.; as in दाशराथिः, कार्ष्णिः; द्रौणिः।
इट् the augment इ।
इतच्(इत) a Tad. ter. showing ‘full of’ or ‘covered with’; as in तारकितं; कुसुमितः (कुसुमान्यस्य संजातानि स तरुः)।
इत्नु(इत्नु) a Kṛit. ter.; as in स्तनयित्नु।
इनच्(इन) a Tad. ter. showing ‘possession’; as in फलिन
इनि(इन्) a Tad. ter. showing ‘possession’; as in धनिन्, दंडिन्; or a Kṛit. ter.; as in प्रजविन्।
इमनिच्(इमन्) a Tad. ter. showing ‘state or भाव’; as in लघिमन्, गरिमन्, म्रदिमन्।
इलच्(इल) a Tad. ter. showing ‘possession’; as in फेनिल, पिच्छिल; or an Uṇ. ter.; as in सलिल।
इष्ठन्(इष्ठ) a Tad. ter. used to form superlative degrees of adjectives.
इष्णुच्(इष्णु) a Kṛit. ter. showing ‘disposition or tendency’; as in भ्राजिष्णु, अलंकरिष्णु, रोचिष्णु; or an Uṇ. ter.; as in देष्णुः।
इसि(इस्) an Uṇ. ter.; as in शोचिस्, ज्योतिस्।
ईकक्(ईक) a Tad. ter.; as in शाक्तीकः, लौहितीकः।
ईकञ्(ईक) a Tad. ter.; as in तार्तीयीक।
ईयसुन्(ईयस्) a Tad. ter. used to form comparative degrees of adjectives.
ईरच् --न्(ईर) a Tad. ter. showing ‘possession’; as in आंडीरः; कांडीरः, or an Uṇ. ter.; as in हिंसीरः, शरीरं; करीरं।
उ(उ) a Kṛit. ter.; as in इच्छुः, जिगमिषुः, भिक्षुः; or an Uṇ. ter. as in तरुः, भरुः, शंयुः।
उकञ्(उक) a Kṛit. ter. showing ‘tendency’; as in पातुकः, स्थायुकः।
उण्(उ) a Kṛit or Uṇ. ter.; as in कारुः, वायुः, स्वादुः।
उरच्(उर) a Tad. ter. showing ‘possession’; as in दंतुरः।
उलच्(उल) an Uṇ. ter.; as in हर्षुल, चटुल।
उसि, उसिन्(उस्) an Uṇ. ter. (n.); as in जनुस्, वपुस्, परुस्।
ऊक(ऊक) a Kṛit ter.; as in दंदशूक, जागरूक।
ऊङ्(ऊ) a fem. ter.; as in कर्कंधू।
ऊठ्(ऊ) a substitute; as in द्यूत from दिव्, जूः from ज्वर्।
ऋ(ऋ) an Uṇ. ter.; as in देवृ।
एण्य(एण्य) a Tad. ter.; as in प्रावृषेण्यः।
एद्यसुच्(एद्युस्) a Tad. ter.; as in अन्येद्युः, परेद्युः।
एनप्(एन) a Tad. ter. (adv.); as in दक्षिणेन, उत्तरेण।
क(अ) a Kṛit ter.; as in किरः, ज्ञः, प्रस्थः, or in उपघ्नः, निघ्नः; or a Tad. ter. (क) used in various senses as in अश्मकः, राष्ट्रकं, अश्वकः, सुवर्णकं, तूष्णीकः।
कक्(क) a Tad ter.; as in वाराहकः।
कक्(क) a Tad. ter.; as in मद्रकः, देवदत्तकः।
कप्(क) a Tad. ter.; as in व्यूढोरस्कः, नदीमातृकः।
कि(इ) a Kṛit ter.; as in चक्रिः, जग्मिः, ददिः, जलधिः।
कुरच्(उर) a Kṛit ter.; as in भिदुर, विदुर।
क्त (त changed to न) the ter. of the past passive participle; as in हत, गत, ज्ञात।
क्तवतु(तवत्) the ter. of the past active participle; as in हतवत्।
क्तिच् --त्(ति) a Kṛit ter. (f.) forming abstract nouns from roots; as in कृतिः, मतिः, गतिः।
कु(नु) a Kṛit ter. showing ‘tendency or disposition;’ as in गृध्नु, क्षिप्नु, त्रस्नु।
क्मरच्(मर) a Kṛitter.; as in घस्मर, सृमर।
क्यच्(य) a denominative ter. (P.); as in पुत्रीयति।
क्यङ् --ष्(य) a denominative ter.; as in भृशायते, पार्थायते।
क्यप्(य) a Kṛit ter.; as in कृत्य, स्तुत्य।
क्रु(रु) a Kṛit ter.; as in भीरु।
क्रु-क्लु-कन्(रु-लु-क) a Kṛit ter.; as in भीरु(लु)क।
क्वनिप्(वन्) a Kṛit or Uṇ ter.; as in सुधीवन्, शीवन्, क्रुश्वन्।
क्वरप्(वर) a Kṛit ter. showing ‘tendency or disposition’; as in इत्वर, सृत्वर, गत्वर।
क्निन्-प्(व् or वि) a Kṛit ter. added to roots, but which is usually omitted; as in स्पृक्, दृक्, संपद्, वाक् &c.
क्स्न(स्न) an Uṇ. ter.; as in अक्ष्णं, कृत्स्नं।
ख(ईन) a Tad. ter.; as in कुलीन।
खच् --श्(अ) a Kṛit ter. before which a nasal is inserted; as in स्तनंधयः, प्रियंवदः, नाडिंधमः।
खञ्(ईन) a Tad. ter.; as in माहाकुलीन।
गक् --न्(ग) an Uṇ. ter.; as in मुद्गः, गंगा।
ग्मिनि(ग्मिन्) a Tad. ter.; as in वाग्मिन्।
गस्नु(स्नु) a Kṛit ter.; as in जिष्णु, स्थास्नु।
घ(अ) a Kṛit ter.; as in गोचरः, उरश्छदः; or a Tad. ter. (इय); as in यज्ञिय, महेंद्रिय।
घञ्(अ) a Kṛit ter. used to form abstract nouns from roots, before which the final vowel and penultimate अ generally undergo Vṛiddhi, and the penultimate short guṇa; as in हारः, त्यागः, पाकः, क्षेपः।
घिनुण्(इन्) a Kṛit ter.; as in त्यागिन्, योगिन्, भोगिन्।
घुरच्(उर) a Kṛit ter.; as in भंगुर।
ङीप्(ई) a fem. ter.; as in गतवती, मृगी।
ङीष्(ई) a fem. ter.; as in कल्माषी, सारंगी।
चणप्(चण) a Tad. ter; as in अक्षरचणः।
चानश्(आन) a ter. of the present participle Atmanepada; as in निघ्नान, भुंजान।
चुं --चं --चुप्(चुं --चुं --चु) a Tad. ter.; as in अक्षरचंचु।
च्वि a name of a termination; see अभूततद्भाव।
छ(ईय) a Tad. ter.; as in त्वदीय, मदीय।
ञ(अ) a Tad. ter.; as in पौर्वशालः।
ञ्य(य) a Tad. ter.; as in पांचजन्यः, कौविदार्यंः।
ट(अ) a Kṛit ter.; as in सेनाचरः, पुरःसरः।
टाप्(आ) a fem. ter.; as in अजा, वंध्या।
ट्युल्(तन) a Tad. ter. showing ‘pertaining to’; as in दिवातन, सायंतन, इदानींतन।
ठक्(इक) a Tad. ter.; as in रौचनिकः, रैवतिकः।
ठञ्(इक) a Tad. ter.; as in दैनिक, नैशिक्र, पैतृक।
ठन्(इक) a Tad. ter. showing ‘possession’ &c.; as in धनिकः, शतिकः।
ड(अ) a Kṛit ter. before which the final consonant of a root is usually dropped; as in अंतगः, दूरगः।
डतमच्(अतम) a Tad. ter. showing ‘one of many’; as in कतम।
डतर(अतर) a Tad. ter. showing ‘one of two’; as in कतर, एकतर।
डु(उ) a Kṛit ter.; as in विभुः, प्रभुः।
ड्वलच्(वल) a Tad. ter. showing ‘possession’; as in नड्वल।
ढ(एय) a Tad. ter.; as in शिलेय, सभेय।
ढक्(एय) a Tad. ter. showing ‘descended or born from’; as in गांगेयः, माहेयः, नादेयः।
ढकञ्(एयक) a Tad. ter.; as in बाहुकुलेयकः।
ढञ्(एय) a Tad. ter.; as in गार्ष्टेयः।
ण(अ) a Kṛit ter.; as in ग्राहः, ज्वालः।
णमुल्(अम्) the termination of a particular kind ofgerund; as in कारं, स्मारंस्मारं।
णिच्(इ) the termination of the causal.
णिनि(इन्) a Kṛit ter.; as in ग्राहिन्, पायिन्, स्थायिन्।
ण्य(य) a Tad. ter.; as in दैत्यः, सांकाश्यः।
ण्यत्(य) a termination of the potential passive participle; as in कार्य, हास्य।
ण्वुल्(अक) a Kṛit ter.; as in प्रवाहिक।
तरप्, तमप्(तर, तम) terminations of the comparative and superlative degrees.
तसिल्(तस्) a ter. of the ablative case; as in मूलत, सर्वतः।
तातिल्(ताति) a Tad. ter.; as in शिवताति, सर्वताति।
तुट्(त्) the augment inserted before अन; as in सायंतनः
तुमुन्(तुम्) the ter. of the infinitive mood.
तृच्(तृ) a Kṛit ter. of agency; as in कर्ता, भोक्ता।
त्यक्(त्य) a Tad. ter.; as in पाश्चात्यः, दाक्षिणात्यः।
त्यप्(त्य) a Tad. ter.; as in तत्रत्य, अत्रत्य।
त्रल्(त्र) a Tad. ter. (adv.); as in कुत्र, सर्वत्र, तत्र।
था --थाल्(था) a Tad. ter. showing ‘manner’; as in सर्वथा, पूर्वथा।
दघ्नच्(दघ्न) Tad. ter. showing ‘measure or height’, as in जानुदघ्न, ऊरुदघ्न, ऊरुद्वयस, गजद्वयस।
द्वयसच्(द्वयस) Tad. ter. showing ‘measure or height’, as in जानुदघ्न, ऊरुदघ्न, ऊरुद्वयस, गजद्वयस।
नङ्(न) a Kṛit. ter.; as in यज्ञः, प्रश्नः, यत्नः।
नुक्(न) the augment न्; as in धूनयति, प्रीणयति।
पुक्(प्) the augment प्; as in रोपयति, ज्ञापयति।
फक्, फञ्(आयन) Tad. ter.; as in नाडायनः, वात्स्यायनः, आश्वलायनः।
म(म) a Tad. ter.; as in मध्यम, आदिम, द्रुमः।
मतुप्(मत्) a possessive ter.; as in अग्निमत्, श्रीमत्; (changed to वत्).
मयट्(मय) a Tad. ter.; as in काष्ठमय, जलमय।
मात्रच्(मात्र) a Tad. ter. showing ‘measure’; as in ऊरुमात्र, गजमात्र।
मिनि(मिन्) a possessive ter.; as in गोमिन्।
मुम्(म्) the augment म्; as in रात्रिंचर, स्तनंधयः।
य(य) a Tad. ter.; as in पाश्या, वात्या, धूम्या, or in सभ्यः, शरण्यः।
यङ्(य) a ter. of the frequentative; as in बोभूयते।
यञ्(य) a Tad. ter.; as in वात्स्यः, गार्ग्यः।
यत्(य) a Kṛit. ter.; as in भव्य, गेय, चेय।
र(र) a possessive ter.; as in मधुर, कुंजर; also a Kṛit. ter.; as in नम्र, दीप्र, कम्र, शुभ्र, हिंस्र।
लच्(ल) a Tad. ter.; as in अंसल, मांसल।
ल्यु(अन) a Kṛit ter. showing ‘agency’; as in नंदनः, मदनः।
ल्युट्(अन) a Kṛit ter. forming abstract nouns; as in गमनं, भवनं, प्रमाणं।
वनिप्(वन्) a Kṛit ter.; as in यज्वन्, धीवन्।
वरच्(वर) a Kṛit ter.; as in ईश्वर, स्थावर।
वलच्(वल) a Tad. ter.; as in शिखावलः, रजस्वला।
विनि(विन्) a possessive ter.; as in पयस्विन्, यशस्विन्, मेधाविन्, स्रग्विन्।
वुञ्(अक) a Kṛit ter.; as in निंदकः, हिंसकः, or a Tad. ter.; as in औष्ट्रकं, राजकं, औरभ्रकं।
वुन्(अक) a Kṛit ter. as in सरकः, लवकः।
श(अ) a Kṛit ter.; as in क्रिया, विंदः, or a Tad. ter. (श); as in लोमशः।
शतृ(अत्) a ter. of the present participle of Parasmaipada; as in पचत्, विदत्।
शानच् (आन or मान) a ter. of the present participle of the Atmanepada; as in पचमानः।
ष, षच्(अ) added at the end of comp.; as in त्रिमूर्धः, पद्माक्षः।
ष्कन्(क) a Tad. ter.; as in पथिकः।
ष्ट्रन्(त्र) a Kṛit ter. showing ‘instrument or means’ of an action; as in वक्त्रं, शस्त्रं, वस्त्रं, पात्रं, योत्रं, दंष्ट्रा।
ष्ठच्(इक) a Tad. ter.; as in कुसीदिकः।
ष्ठन् --ष्ठल्(इक) Tad. ter.; as in पर्पिकः, आकर्षिकः।
ष्फ(आयन) a Tad. ter.; as in कात्यायनी।
ष्यञ्(य) a Tad. ter. showing ‘state (भाव)’; as in चातुर्यं, सौंदर्यं।
सन्(स) the ter. of the desiderative.
a Tad. ter. (adv.); as in इह। Note. --The ERRATA will be separately published hereafter.


N. B. – Except where otherwise specified, the Editions of works referred to are
mostly those printed at Calcutta.
Ait Br. Aitareya Brâhmaṇa (Bombay).
Ak. Amarakosha. („).
A. L. Anandalaharî.
Amaru. Amarusataka.
Apast. Apastamba.
A. R. Anargharâghava (published in the Kàvyamàlà).
Ary. S. Aryavidyâsudhàkara (Bombay).
Aryâ. S. Aryâsaptasatî (published in the Kávyamâlâ).
Asvad. Asvadhâṭî (published in the Subhâshitaratnákara).
Asval. Asvaláyana's Sùtras.
Av. Atharva-veda.
Baudhây. Baudhâyana.
Bg. Bhagavadgîtâ (Bombay).
Bh. Bhartṛihari's three Satakas (the figures 1., 2., 3. after Bh. denoting Sṛingâraº, Nîtiº, and Vâirâgyaº).
Bhav. P. Bhavishyottara Purâṇa.
Bhâg. Bhágavata (Bombay).
Bhâr. Ch. Bhâratachampū (Bombay).
Bhâshâ P. Bhàshàparichchheda.
Bhàva P. Bhàvaprakâsa.
Bîj. Bîjagaṇita.
Bk. Bhaṭṭikâvya.
B. R. Bálarâmáyaṇa (Benares).
B. and R. Böthlingk and Roth.
Bṛi. S. Varâhamihira's Bṛihatsamhitâ.
Bri. S. Varâhamihira's Bṛihatsamhitâ.
Bṛi. Kath Bṛihatkathâ.
Br. Sùt Brahmasūtras.
Bri. Ar. Up. Bṛihadâraṇyakopanishad.
Bṛi. Up. Bṛihadâraṇyakopanishad.
Bv. Bhâminîvilâsa (Bombay).
Chaṇḍ K. Chaṇḍakausika.
Chand M. Chhandomanjarî.
Chandr. Chandrâloka.
Châṇ. Châṇakyasataka.
Chât. Chàtakâshṭaka (in two parts.)
Ch. P. Chaurapanchâsikâ.
Ch. Up. Chhándogyopanishad
Dáy. B., Dày. Dáyabhàga.
D. Bhàg Devîbhâgavata.
Dhan. V Dhananjayavijaya.
Dharm. Dharmaviveka.
Dhūrt. Dhūrtasamâgama.
Dk. Dasakumâracharita (Bombay).
D. R. Dasarūpa (Hall's Edition).
Dṛi. S. Dṛishṭântasataka.
Gaut. S. Gautamasūtra.
Gaut. Sūt. Gautamasūtra.
Ghaṭ. Ghaṭakarparakàvya.
Gît. Gîtagovinda.
G. L. Gangâlaharî.
G. M. Gaṇaratnamahodadhi of Vardhamâna.
Golâdh. Golâdhyàya.
H. Hitopadesa (Nirṇaya Ságara Edition).
Halày. Haláyudha.
Hariv. Harivamsa.
Hch. Harshacharita.
H. D. Hamsadūta.
Hem. Hemachandra.
Isop. Isopanishad.
J. N. V. Jaiminîyanyâyamâlâvistara (Goldstücker's Edition).
K. Kâdambarî (Bombay).
Kàm Kámandakinîtisára.
sisikâvṛitti (Benares).
Karpūr. Karpūramanjàrî (published in the Kàvyamàlà).
Kaṭh Kaṭhopanishad.
Kàṭh. Kàtyáyana.
Kaus. Kausikasūtra.
Kaus. Br. Kaushîtaki Brâhmaṇa.
Kaus. Up. Kaushîtakyupanishad.
Kàv Kâvyâdarsa.
Kâvyàl Kàvyàlamkàra (published in the Kâvyamâlâ).
Ken Kenopanishad.
Ki. Kirâtârjunîya.
Kîr. K. Kîrtikaumudî (Bombay).
K. P. Kávyaprakâsa.
Ks. Kathâsaritsàgara.
Ku. Kumârasambhava (Bombay).
Kull. Kullūka.
Kusum Kusumânjali.
Kuval. Kuvalayânanda.
Lîlâ. Lîlâvatî.
M. Mâlavikâgnimitra (Bombay).
Mâdh. N. Mâdhavanidâna.
Mahàn. Mahânâṭaka.
Màl. Mâlatîmâdhava (Bombay).
Malli. Mallinátha.
Mâṇḍ. Mâṇḍūkyopanishad.
Mârk. P. Mârkaṇḍeya Purâṇa.
Mb. Mahâbhârata (Bombay).
Mbh. Mahâbhâshya (Bombay).
Me. Meghadūta (Bombay).
Med. Medinîkosha.
Mit. Mitâksharâ (Bombay).
Mîm. Mîmâmsâ.
Mk. Mṛichchhakaṭika
Moha M. Mohamudgara.
Ms. Manusmṛiti.
Mu. Mudrârâkshasa (Bombay),
Mugdha. Mugdhabodha.
Muṇḍ. Muṇḍakopanishad.
Mv. Mahâvîracharita (Borooah's Edition),
N. Naishadhacharita.
Nâg. Nàgânanda.
Nala. Nalopâkhyâna (Bombay).
Nalod. Nalodaya.
Nir. Nirukta.
Nîti. Nîtisâra.
Nîtipr. Nîtipradîpa.
P. Pâṇini's Ashṭâdhyâyî.
Pad. D. Padânkadūta.
P. P. Pàrvatîpariṇaya.
P. R. Prasannarâghava.
Prab. Prabodhachandrodaya (Bombay).
Prasna. Up. Prasnopanishad.
Priy. D. Priyadarsikâ (Bombay).
Pt. Panchatantra (Bombay).
R. Raghuvamsa (Bombay).
Râj. P. Râjaprasasti.
Râj. T. Râjatarangiṇî.
Râm. Râmâyaṇa (Bombay).
Ras. M. Rasamanjarî.
Ratn. Ratnâvalî (Bombay).
R. G. Rasagangâdhara (published in the Kâvyamâlâ).
Rs. Ritusamhâra (Bombay).
Rv. Rigveda (Max Müller's Edition).
S. Sakuntalâ (Bombay).
Sabdak. Sabdakalpadruma.
Sàn. K. Sânkhyakârikâ.
Sànkhya K Sânkhyakârikâ.
Sán. S. Sànkhyasūtra.
Sar. K. Sarasvatîkaṇṭhâbharaṇa.
Sarva. S. Sarvadarsanasamgraha.
Sar. S. Sarvadarsanasamgraha.
Sat. Br. Satapatha Brâhmaṇa.
Sây. Sâyaṇa.
S. B. Sârîrabhâshya.
S. D. Sâhityadarpaṇa.
Si. Sisupâlavadha.
Sid. Mukt. Siddhântamuktâvali.
Sid. Muktâ. Siddhântamuktâvali.
Sid. Sir. Siddhântasiromaṇi.
Sik Sikshâ.
Siva P. Siva Purâṇa.
Sk. Siddhânta-Kaumudî (Bombay).
Skanda. P. Skanda Purâṇa.
S. L. Sudhâlaharî (published in the Kâvyamâlâ).
Srut. Srutabodha.
S. Til. Sṛingâratilaka.
Subh. Subháshitaratnâkara (Bombay).
Subhàsh Subhâshita.
Subh. Ratn. Subhàshitaratnabhâṇdâgâra (Bombay)
Su4rya S Sūryasiddhânta.
Susr. Susruta.
Sv. Sâmaveda.
Svet. Up. Svetâsvataropanishad.
Tarka K. Tarkakaumudî (Bombay).
Trik. Trikâṇḍasesha.
T. S. Tarkasamgraha (Bombay).
Tv. Târânâtha's Vàchaspatyam.
U. Uttararàmacharita.
Udb Udbhaṭa.
Ud. D. Uddhavadūta.
Ud. S. Uddhavasandesa.
Ujjval. Ujjvaladatta.
Uṇ. Uṇâdisūtras.
Up. Upanishad.
Upan. Upanishad.
V. Vikramorvasîyam (Bombay).
Vâgb. Vâgbhaṭa.
Vais Vaiseshika.
Vais. Sūt. Vaiseshikasūtras.
Vâj Vâjasaneyi Samhitâ.
Vâk. P. Vâkyapadîya.
Vall. Subh. Vallabhadeva's Subhâshitâvali (Bombaay)
Vás. Vásavadattâ (Hall's Edition).
Vb. Viddhasâlabhanjikâ (Bombay).
Ve. Veṇîsamhâra.
Vedànta P. Vedântaparibhâshâ.
Vet. Vetálapancha vimsati.
Vid. Vidagdhamukhamaṇḍana.
Vikr Vikramânkadevacharita (Bombay).
Vîr. M. Vîramitrodaya.
V. May. Vyavahâramayùkha (Mr. Mandlik's Edition).
Vop. or Bop. Vopadeva.
V. P. Vishṇu Purâṇa.
V. Ratn. Vṛittaratnâkara.
Vṛind. S Vṛindâvanasataka.
V. Sah. Vishṇusahasranâma.
Y. Yâjñavalkya (Mr. Mandlik's Edition).
Yoga S Yogasūtras.
Yv., Yaj. Yajurveda.
Note. –After the Abbreviations given above, where one Arabic figure is followed by another, the
former indicates the canto, chapter, part, act, &c., and the latter, the number of the
verse. A single Arabic figure indicates the page, act, &c.

ABBREVIATIONS of Grammatical Terms

A. or Atm. Atmanepada.
a. Adjective.
abl. Ablative.
acc. Accusative.
adv. Adverb.
alg. Algebra.
Arith. Arithmetic.
A. S. Anglo-Saxon.
astr. Astronomy.
astrol. Astrology.
Avyayî. Avyayîbhâva.
Bah. Bahuvrîhi.
Caus. Causal.
cf. Compare.
Com. Commentary.
comp. Compound.
dat. Dative.
Den. Denominative.
desid. Desiderative.
du. Dual.
e. g. Exempli gratia, for example.
Eng. English.
Etym., Ety. Etymology.
f. or fem. Feminine.
fig. Figuentative.
fr. From.
freq. Frequentative.
gen. Genitive.
Germ. German.
Goth. Gothic.
Gr. Greek.
gram. Grammar.
ibid. The same.
i. e. id est, that is.
ind. Indeclinable.
inf. Infinitive.
instr. Instrumental.
L. Latin.
lit. Literal.
loc. Locative.
m. or mas. Masculine.
Mar. Marâṭhî.
Math. Mathematics.
Medic. Medicine.
n. Neuter.
N. Name.
Nom. Nominative.
num. a. Numeral adjective.
oft Often times.
opp. Opposite of.
P. Parasmaipada.
pass. Passive.
pers. Persian.
phil. Philosophy.
pl. Plural.
pot. p. Potential passive participle.
p. p. Past passive participle.
Pres. Present tense.
pres. p. Present participle.
pron. a. Pronominal adjective.
q. v. quod vide, which see.
Rhet. Rhetoric.
sing. Singular.
Subst. Substantive.
s. v. sub voce, see under the word.
Tat. Tatpurusha.
U. Ubhayapada (Parasmai. and Atmane.)
Várt. Vârtika.
Ved. Vedic.
v. l. Various reading.
Voc. Vocative.
= Equal or equivalent to, same as.
+ Plus.
&c. Et cætera.
º denotes that the rest of the word under consideration is to be supplied; e. g.; ºरत्नप्रभवस्य यस्य under अनंत means अनंतरत्न &c.