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A SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

WITH REFERENCES TO THE BEST EDITION
OF SANSKRIT AUTHOR AND ETYMOLOGIES
AND COMPARISONS OF COGNATE WORDS CHIEFLY IN
GREEK, LATIN, GOTHIC AND ANGLO-SAXON
THEODORE BENFEY

PREFACE.

FOR some years past there has been no Sanskrit Dictionary available
for the English student. The second edition of that by Wilson,
published in 1831, has been long exhausted, as also Yates’ Abridg-
ment, published in Calcutta in 1846. Dr. Goldstücker’s excellent
work has not yet reached the end of the first vowel, and the St.
Petersburg Dictionary, by Messrs. Böhtlingk and Roth, besides being
in German, has only just completed the letter ph.
The present work aims at supplying this long-felt want. It does
not exceed the limits of one volume, but at the same time it is hoped
that it contains all that the student is likely to require. It especially
includes all the words occurring in the different Chrestomathies and
Selections generally in use (as Lassen’s Anthology, my own Chre-
stomathy, Bopp’s Nala, Johnson’s Mahâbhârata Selections, &c.),
and in the texts usually read by students, as the Hitopadeça, Pańcha-
tantra, Manu’s Laws, Çakuntalâ, Vikramorvaçî, Uttararâmacharita,
Mâlatîmâdhava, and Meghadūta; but it is also believed to contain
most of the words likely to occur in the general classical literature.
It does not profess to contain the technical terms of the grammarians
or philosophers, nor are purely Vaidik words included, except such
as occur in the extracts given in the above-mentioned Chresto-
mathies.
References have been added to the greater part of the meanings,
and sometimes explanations of passages also; but these latter are
rarely introduced, for fear of swelling the volume beyond its proper
size. For the same reason, compound words are generally printed
in roman type, and arranged alphabctically under their last part.
Thus the student must look for a-maṅgala, au-am̄ça, and megha-dūta
respectively under maṅgala, am̄ça, and dūta. The difficulty arising
from this source will soon disappear with practice. If a word. as for
instance chandraçekhara, is not found under ch, its first component
part chandra will be found; and the student has only to turn to the
letter ç to find the remaining part çekhara, and under it in its place
the very word he is in search of.
For the same reason, feminies ending in â, î, ū, ikâ, are inserted
under the corresponding masculines (where there are such) in a, i,
ṛi, n, nt, ańch, as, u, aka; while participles, participles used as sub-
stantives, and absolutives are inserted under the verbs to which they
belong.
The etymology of every word is given, where ascertainable; but
here also, to save space, abbreviations have been used. The several
parts of a compound word are separated by hyphens, except in the
case of the grammatical element, which is always preceded by + :
thus, in p. 2, a-karuṇa + tva denotes that this word is compounded
of a and karuṇa, with the affix tva; and similarly, in p. 397, dâça-
rathi is analysed as daçaratha + i.
As Sanskrit is also of the greatest use in the study of Comparative
Grammar, I have added at the end of the principal articles the
kindred words in the Greek, Latin, and German (particularly the
Gothic and Anglo-Saxon) languages.
I have availed myself of the valuable labours of my predecessors,
especially the works, already mentioned, of Wilson, Goldstücker,
Böhtlingk, and Roth (as far as published), besides the Çabdakal-
padruma of Râja Râdhâkânta Deva, and the various glossaries which
have been published for special books; but for the latter half some
of there aids have failed me, and I have been chiefly left to my own
resources. I must therefore crave the reader’s indulgence for the
deficiencies and shortcomings which he may discover.
I cannot close this Preface without expressing my sincere thanks
to Mr. E. B. Cowell and Professor Max Müller, for the assistance
which they have rendered to me while carrying this work through
the press.
GÖTTINGEN: Jan. 1, 1866.

CONTRACTIONS AND SIGNS.

adhy. adhyâya.
Amar. Amaruçataka, ed. Calcutt.
Ānandal. Ānandalaharî, in Häberlin's Sanskrit Anthology.
Arj. Arjunasamâgama, an episode of the MBh., ed. Bopp.
A.S. Anglo-Saxon.
Ātm. Ātmanepada.
Aufr. Ujjvalad. Ujjvaladatta, ed. Autrecht.
Bhag. Bhagavadgîtâ, ed. Schlegel.
Bhâg. P. Bhâgavata-Purâṇa, ed. Burnouf.
Bhartṛ. Bhartṛihari, ed. Bohlen.
Bhâshâp. Bhâshâparichchheda, in Bibliotheca Indica and in my Sanskrit Chrestomathy.
Bhaṭṭ. Bhaṭṭikâvya, ed. Calc.
Bhavishyap. Bhavishya-Purâṇa.
Böhtl. Chr. Böhtlingk, Sanskrit Chrestomathy.
Böhtl. Ind. Spr. Böhtlingk. Indische Spr{??}che (Indian Sentences).
Br. Brockhaus.
Brâhmaṇ. and Brâhmaṇav. Brâhmaṇavilâpa, an episode of the MBh., ed. Bopp.
Brahmav. P. Brahmavaivarta-Purâṇa, ed. Stenzler.
Çâk. Çâkuntala, ed. Böhtlingk.
Çântiç. Çântiçataka, in Häberlin's Sanskrit Anthology.
Çârṅg. Paddh. Çârṅgadhara-Paddhati (MSS. used by Böhtl.).
Çatr. Çatrum̄jayamâhâtmya, ed. A. Weber.
Caus. Causal.
Châṇ. Châṇakya, published in Häberlin's Anthology, and by Weber in Berl. Monatsb. Hist. Phil. Cl., i. e. in ‘Monthly Reports of the Berlin Academy of Sciences, Class of History and Philology,’ 1864.
Ch. Chezy.
Chât. Châtaka, in Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlands, i. e. ‘Journal for the Knowledge of the Orient,’ vol. iv.
Chaur. and Chaurap. Chaurapańchâçikâ, in Bohlen's ed. of Bhartṛ{??}ari.
Chr. my Sanskrit Chrestomathy.
Çiç. Çiçupâlavadha, 2. ed. Calc.; the ninth book in my Chr.
ÇKD. Çabdakalpadruma.
Comp. Compound.
Çṛiṅgârat. Çṛiṅgâratilaks, ed. Gildemeister, in his edition of the Meghadūta.
Çrut. and Çrutab. Çrutabodha, ed. Brockhaus.
Çukas. Çukasaptati (MSS. of St. Petersburg).
Çvet. Up. Çvetâçvataropanishad, in Bibliotheca Indica.
d. distich.
Daçak. Daçakumâracharita, ed. Wilson, partly in my Chr.
Daçar. Daça-Rūpa, ed. Fitz-Edward Hall.
denomin. denominative.
desid. desiderative.
Dev. Devîmâhâtmya, ed. Poley.
Draup. Draupadîpramâtha, an episode of the MBh., ed. Bopp.
frequent. frequentative.
Ghaṭ. Ghaṭakarpara, ed. Cale.
Gît. Gîtagovinda. ed. Lassen.
Goth. Gothic.
Gött. Gel. Anz. Göttinger Gelebrte Anzeigen, i. e. ‘Scientific Reports published in Göttingen.’
Govardh. Āryas. Govardhana Āryasaptati, ed. Soma Nath Mookerjea.
Grammar. Grammarians.
Häb. and Häberl. Chr. or Anth. Kâvya Sangraha, ‘A Sanskrit Anthology,’ by John Häberlin.
Hariv. Harivam̄ça, ed. Calc.
Hiḍ. Hiḍimbavadha, an episode of the MBh., ed. Bopp.
Hit. Hitopadeça, ed. of Lassen, and when followed by M.M., that of Max Müller. When followed by two Arabian numerals, the first denotes the page, the second the line; when followed by a Roman and Arabian numeral, the first denotes the book, the second the distich.
Icel. Icelandic.
Indr. Indralokâgamana, an episode of the MBh., ed. Bopp.
Johns. Sel. Johnson's Selections from the Mahâbhârata.
Kâm. and Kâmand. Nîtis. Kâmandakîya Nîtisâra, in Bibliotheca Indica.
Kathâs. Kathâsaritsâgara, ed. Brockhaus.
Kâvya Prak. Kâvya Prakaça, 2. ed. Calcutta, 1865.
Kir. and Kirât. Kirâtârjunîya, 2. ed. Calc., 1846, and the fifth book in my Chr.
Kull. Kullūka Schol. ed. Man.
Kumâras. Kumârasam̄bhava, ed. Stenzler.
Kusumâńj. Kusumâńjali, ed. Cowell.
Lalit. Lalitavistara, in Bibliotheca Indica.
Lass. Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica.
Lass. Pent. Lassen, Commentatio de Pentapotamia Indica.
Lat. Latin.
Mahâv. Mahâvîracharita, ed. Trithen.
Mâlat. Mâlatîmâdhava, ed. Calc.
Mâlav. Mâlavikâgnimitra, ed. Tullberg.
Man. Mânavadharmaçâstra, ed. Haughton and Lois. (i. e. Loiseleur Deslongchamps). Where there is a numeral in brackets, it denotes the verse of Jones’ translation.
Mârk. P. Mârkaṇḍeya-Purâṇa, in Bibliotheca Indica.
Matsyop. Matsyopâkhyâna, an episode of the MBh., ed. Bopp.
MBh. Mahâbhârata, ed. Calc.
Megh. Meghadūta, ed. Gildemeister.
Mit. Mitâksharâ, ed. Calc., 1829.
Mṛichchh. Mṛichchhakaṭikâ, ed. Stenzler.
Mudrâr. Mudrârâkshasa, ed. Calc.
Naish. Naishadhacharita, ed. Calc.
Nal. Nala, an episode of the MBh. ed. Bopp.; a numeral in brackets denotes Böhtlingk's ed. in his Chrestomathy.
Nalod. Nalodya, ed. Benary.
N.H.G. New High German.
N.N.L. New Netherlandis or Dutch.
Nyây. S. Nyâya-Sūtrâṇi of Gotama, ed. Calc.
O.H.G. Old High German.
O.N. Old Norse.
Padmap. Padma-Purâṇa, ed. Wollheim.
Pâṇ. Pâṇini, ed. Böhtlingk.
Pańch. Pańchatantra, ed. Kosegarten; the numerals are used on the same system as in Hit. When there is added ‘ed. orn.,’ it denotes the fragment of the recensio ornatior, published by Kosegarten.
Par. Parasmaipada.
Part. particle.
Pr. prologue.
Prab. Prabodhachandrodaya, ed. Brockhaus.
Prâkṛ. Prâkṛit.
Ragh. Raghuvaffiça, ed. Stenzler.
Râgh. Râghavânanda, Sch. ad Man.
Râjat. Râjataraṅgiṇî, ed. Troyer, the fifth book in my Chrestomathy.
Râm. Râmâyaṇa, the two first books after the ed. of Schlegel; when that of Gorresio is meant, there is added Gorr.; the remaining books after Gorresio's.
Ratnâv. Ratnâvalî, 2. ed. Calc.
Rigv. Rigveda.
Ṛit. Ṛitusam̄hâra, ed. Bohlen, the first chapter also in Lass., the sixth in my Chrestomathy.
Sâh. D. Sâhitya Darpaṇa, in Bibliotheca Indica.
Sâṅkhya Aph. Sâṅkhya Sūtras, in Hall's ed. of Saṅkhya Pravachana Bhâshya in Bibl. Ind.
Sâv. Sâvitryupâkhyâna, an episode of the MBh., ed. Bopp.
Siddh. K. Siddhântakaumudi, ed. Calc., 4to.
Siddh. Mukt. Siddhânta Muktâvali, ed. Roër in Bibl. Ind.
Skandap. Kâçikh. Kâçikhaṇḍa, a part of the Skanda-Purâṇa (MSS.).
Somadev. Nal. Somadeva's Nala, published by Brockhaus.
Ssk. and Sskr. Sanskrit.
Suçr. Suçruta, ed. Calc.; the first numeral denotes the vol., the second the page, the third the line.
Sund. Sundopasundopâkhyâna, an episode of the MBh., ed. Bopp.
Swed. Swedish.
Upak. Upakoça, an episode of the Kathâs., ed. Brockhaus.
Utt. Râmach. Uttara Râmacharita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.
Varâh. Bṛih. Varâhamihira's Bṛihajjâtaka.
Varâh. Bṛih. S. Varâhamihira's Bṛihatsam̄hitâ.
Vârt. Vârtika.
Vedântas. Vedântasâra, in my Chrestomathy.
Vikr. Vikramorvaçî, ed. Bollensen.
Vop. Vopadeva, ed. Böhtlingk.
Web. Ind. St. Weber, Indische Studien, i. e. ‘Essaya concerning India.’
Yâjń. Yâjńavalkya, ed. Stenzler.
Yogas. Yogasūtrâṇi, ed. Allahabed, 1852-53.
denotes verbs or meanings for which there are no authoritative references.
' when before, denotes that the word occurs only as latter part of a compound; when after, as former.
º denotes abbreviations, which may be easily supplied from the context.
- denotes, in the etymological analysis, elements which are to be found in the dictionary; in comp. that the word which is the subject of the article must be supplied, as e.g. 1, A, 8, after An- must be added am̄ça; 51, B, 10 bel., before -paṇa must be added ardha.
+ denotes grammatical elements of a word.
* denotes fictitious forms.